183 there: létezés kifejezése

Ld még 195

Ezt a there-t - amely nem azonos a there határozószóval - olyankor használjuk, amikor mindössze valaminek a létezését állítjuk:

Look into my bag;     there's                  a surprise for you         there
                                           létezést                                                               Helyhatározó:
                                           kifejező there                                                   ott

A there-rel

(1) a BE ige + alany, vagy



(2) [ritkábban] a BE ige + alany + igei szerkezet,



(3) [ritkán, irodalmi stílusban] valamely egyéb ige áll együtt.



(1) There + BE + alany:

There's a man in the doorway


A there melletti BE:


(a) Gyakorlatilag minden igeidőben és segédigékkel is állhat:

there       has never been                      another town like this
there       must be                                     another town like this
there       ought to be                              another town like this
there might be                                                      another town like this

there could have been                         another town like this


(b) Egyéb igékhez kapcsolódhat to-igeneves vagy pőreigeneves alakban is:

There's going to be a fight
There appears to be a fight

I don't want there to be a fight
Let there be light


(c) Használatos inges alakban, elöljárókkal is:

She insisted on there being a trial
There being a civil war, a curfew had to be imposed
What's the chance of there being enough fuel?


(d) Nyelvtanilag e mondatok igazi alanya a there:

(i)Kérdésben helyet cserél a funkcióigével.

ld 46

There's no more cheeseIs there any more cheese?
Has there ever been another town like this?


(ii) Az utókérdésben (ld 191) azt ismételjük meg.

There's no chese left, is there?
(Gondoljunk az It's not cheese, is it? mondatra: ennek az alanya az it névmás)


(e) Sajátos szerkezet a there is / there was no -ing 'nem lehet' illetve 'nehéz' értelemben:

There was no denying the result
Saci is such a strange person; there's no knowing what she's up to  
There was no saying why he had done it

There was no telling why he had done it
There's no arguing with my boss


(f) A there is no helyett sokszor no-t használ a modul-nyelv (pl. újságcímekben)

ld 116

NO EASY WAY OUT [ = there is no easy way out]

Hasonló szerkezet a No milk today [= there is / will be no milk today]

(2) There + BE + alany + inges szerkezet

There's a man standing in the doorway
[= There's a man  AND he's /WHO is  standing];
There's a bird sitting on the swing
There were noises coming from the pantry
There were children sitting and playing everywhere



(3) There + egyéb ige:

live  exist  stand  lie  remain
enter  occur  follow  come  rise
In the same town, there lived two wicked brothers
There may come a time when the south will be rich, and the north poor
Shortly after the revolution, there also occurred a change in taste


(4) Ritka, választékos, könyvszagú szerkezet a there + passzív BE + 3. alak.

After the closing ceremony there was given a magnificent reception